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Lewin’s Change Management Model

Understanding and Managing Organisational Change

Kurt Lewin’s Change Management Model is a well-known framework for understanding and managing organizational change. It consists of three key stages: Unfreeze, Change, and Refreeze. Let’s break down each of these stages and then discuss how it can be applied in an HR role, along with its pros and cons.

1. Unfreeze:

  • This stage involves preparing the organization for change by breaking down the existing mindset, attitudes, and routines.

  • It requires creating awareness of the need for change and establishing a sense of urgency.

  • HR’s role in this stage may include conducting organizational assessments, identifying areas that need change, and communicating the need for change to employees.

2. Change:

  • In this stage, actual changes are implemented, which may include new processes, systems, or structures.

  • It’s important to provide employees with the necessary tools, training, and support to adapt to the changes.

  • HR plays a critical role in facilitating training and development programs, managing communication during the transition, and monitoring employee engagement and reactions.

3. Refreeze:

  • Once the changes are in place and accepted by employees, this stage aims to stabilize and reinforce the new state.

  • It involves embedding the changes into the organization’s culture and practices.

  • HR can help by designing performance appraisal systems, reward mechanisms, and ongoing support to ensure the changes become part of the organizational norm.

How Lewin’s Change Management Model can be used in an HR role:

Scenario: Implementing a New Performance Management System Suppose your organization wants to introduce a new performance management system to replace the outdated one. Here’s how Lewin’s model can be applied:

Unfreeze: HR would start by conducting an assessment to identify the shortcomings of the current system and gather feedback from employees. HR would then communicate the need for change, highlighting how the new system will address these issues and improve performance evaluations.

Change: HR would be responsible for designing and delivering training programs for managers and employees on how to use the new system effectively. They would also provide ongoing support to address any issues or concerns that arise during the transition.

Refreeze: After the new performance management system has been in place for some time and employees have adapted to it, HR would ensure that the new practices are integrated into the organization’s culture. This might involve revising policies, aligning rewards with the new system, and conducting periodic reviews to ensure its effectiveness.

Pros and Cons of Lewin’s Change Management Model:


      • Simplicity: It’s a straightforward model that is easy to understand and implement.
      • Focus on Preparation: The emphasis on unfreezing helps organizations prepare employees for change, reducing resistance.
      • Stages of Change: Provides a clear roadmap for managing the entire change process.


      • Linear Approach: Critics argue that the model can be too simplistic for complex, ongoing changes, as it suggests a linear progression when real-life changes can be messy and iterative.
      • Resistance May Persist: It may not fully address the challenges of dealing with deep-seated resistance to change.
      • Limited Focus on Post-Change: Some argue that it places less emphasis on the long-term sustainability of changes once they are implemented.

In summary, Lewin’s Change Management Model is a valuable tool for HR professionals to guide organizations through change processes. While it provides a structured approach, it’s essential to recognize its limitations and adapt it to the specific needs and complexities of your organization’s change initiatives.



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